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|Title:||FLUORIDES IN DRINKING WATERS|
|Keywords:||CIVIL ENGINEERING;FLUORIDES;DRINKING WATERS;FLUORIDATION|
|Abstract:||Drinking Waters should contain fLuoXidee in a concentration of 0.6 to 1.5 ppm to protect special .y children from diseases pertaining to ,teeth and to bones. It is the responsibility of Public Health Engineer to f <uori- date water supplies when Waters contain less than 0.6 ppm of fluorides, and to defluoridate ate when waters contain more fluorides than the optimal level of 1.0 to 1.2 ppm. Fluorides are added to water to obtain a concentration of 1.0 to 1.2 ppm, an optimal level depending Upon air temperature humidity and other geological factors of a particular locality. - At this optimum level,, fluorides e ibit nOither harmful effects to public, plant, fish or other l,if C nor deleterious effects in industrial use of water.. Some substitutes like fluoridation of milk, supplying fluoride-containing chewing tablets to children, increasing the fluoride content of vegetables etc., are suggested, but fluoridation of water supplies has been proved to be safe, feasible and best. As compared to the expenditure on dental care, fluoridation of drinking water is not only beneficial but also economical. Fluorides,, if present in excess quantities, are removed from drinking water, by passing water throes, calcium phosphates or activated carbons, or bar the addition of Aluminum: compounds, Lagnesias or ion exchangers|
|Research Supervisor/ Guide:||Chandra, Mahesh|
|Appears in Collections:||MASTERS' DISSERTATIONS (Civil Engg)|
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