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|Title:||RAIL ROUTE ALIGNMENT USING MODERN GEOMATICS TECHNIQUES FOR DIRECT ROUTE TO RANCHI|
|Authors:||Kumar, Shiv Sagar|
|Keywords:||CIVIL ENGINEERING;RAIL ROUTE ALIGNMENT;MODERN GEOMATICS TECHNIQUES;DIRECT ROUTE|
|Abstract:||Britishers laid out major rail network in India to expand their empire and for better control over the vast land to exploit the resources. This was a boon for independent India and their coverage was so wide spread that no need was felt for any major railway project after the independence, except the Konkan Railways. With the increase in population, the pressure is now being felt on the existing rail network and the Indian railways is planning to append the network by joining un-served areas. Rail route alignment involves Reconnaissance survey, Preliminary survey and final location survey. In conventional method of survey for ground verification or pegging, plane table method is used. Plane table needs reference detail for solving its position and may not be useful in hilly terrain, agricultural areas or desert areas. In such cases, astronomical observations are used to find precise position on the ground. Astronomical methods are time consuming and require sound knowledge of Astronomy. To overcome these drawbacks, modern techniques such as GIS and GPS are proposed in the Rail Route alignment work. Route survey has been done with the help of topographical maps provided by the Survey of India. In order to identify the possible corridors, contours drawn on the maps are used. Being the two-dimensional representation of three-dimensional world it become very difficult to visualize the terrain using these maps. This problem is enhanced in difficult terrain, such as hilly area. It takes much time to identify the possible corridors and some time not all corridors are identified. With addition it become very difficult and some time erroneous, to read all contour values and perform all calculations for each identified alignments; Other problems associated with the topographical maps are, Informations are not up to date. For route surveys in hilly terrain Aerial photographs and Satellite imageries with addition to topographical maps of suitable scale may be used to visualize and analyze the area. All these data sources are then compiled and processed using GIS. GIS uses digital inputs, which may be from Aerial photographs, Satellite imageries or may be from topographical map. Information on Topographical sheets is converted into digital form'by digitizing the map features and contours. 3D-GIS is a specialized branch of the GIS uses contours and spot levels obtained from topographical sheets or from Aerial photographs or Field survey data, to create a mathematical model of the terrain. Projecting the entire feature on this surface of that mathematical model called DTM (Digital Terrain Model). Using this DTM, rendering over the terrain is possible, which help to identify the possible corridors for the route. The information stored in the form of DTM enables the planner to interrogate and obtain elevation of any point on the map. The designer can make a quick decision of the alignment and profile, since the burden of routine calculation of grades,|
|Research Supervisor/ Guide:||Jain, Kamal|
|Appears in Collections:||MASTERS' DISSERTATIONS (Civil Engg)|
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