Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://localhost:8081/xmlui/handle/123456789/6704
Authors: Mukherjee, Sreenita
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: A library is a collection of information, thoughts and wisdom expressed in written or audio or video forms. It is a space to advance knowledge, foster creativity, encourage exchange of ideas and enhance quality of life. Library is one of the world's greatest social and intellectual spaces which influence the generations. Sustainably designed libraries would be built to last, to flexibly respond to changing functional demands, to provide an environment that is inspiring and safe, to perform efficiently by providing great financial value to the community that support its creation. It is interesting to observe transformation of the library through digital age. Though the primary function of the library as knowledge temple has remained same, the processes involved at delivery have revolutionized especially at the end of the last millennium. The Thesis aims to understand the critical issues regarding library: obsolescence crisis of traditional libraries, the paradigm shift in designing library building at digital age, spatial requirements for planning, environment responsive approaches and advanced building services. The research will culminate towards development of guidelines for user friendly modern library building. Obsolescence crisis of traditional libraries: Physical libraries are in crisis due to changes in culture of teaching and learning. Providing access to information is prime function of any library traditionally; only change is that the print media is not the most sought after source to get information for younger generation. The very traditional instruction-cantered models of pedagogy where good teaching is conceptualized as the passing on of sound academic, practical, or vocational knowledge are being replaced with learner-cantered approaches. This shift to a `learning paradigm' has changed the role of different learning environments in a place to share information, exchange ideas, and participate in the experience of learning. Traditional appreciation of grand reading rooms with high windows, light-filled space, walls lined with number of books, book cataloguing system, are aspects of appreciation till date. But in future, interior of library will house fewer books and quiet reading rooms; and will see increase in space for people and teams, more desktop terminals, digitized cataloguing systems, plasma screens to facilitate collaborative activities among small groups. Principle component of learning has not changed much, but the expectations among students to receive the same have undergone a sea-change. So basically the traditional concept of library design is in crisis. At the same time, some principal design elements like the grand central reading hall, naturally-lit spaces, user friendliness, comfort, flexibility, will continue to be there for quite some time. The internet is being predicted as the future library; some also opined that physical library is in a way of obsolescence. Traditionally library building houses valuable collection for learners. Library needs to find spaces for learners of every age using books and digital media as catalysts. With advent of digital technology, the young users are habituated to use computers; laptops have provided them wider freedom to get information anytime anywhere. Declining number of visitors to library establishes a desperate need to revisit library design. The Internet has tended to isolate people from real world. But library with the advantage of its physical entity is in better situation to fulfil the expectations of students, teachers and society. Connecting to both real and virtual world in right proportion would be the serious duty of today's libraries to dispense. Changing patterns of student learning is the main reason of crisis in traditional library. The footfall of students will swell as availability of technology and resources provides new and friendly options of library services. In the past, expanding collections of books and other hard copies reduced user space for reading. On the contrary, modern library is placing reduced demand on physical space requirement due to digital technology. If the library has to overcome its static character, the space must flexibly accommodate evolving technologies. Beyond general changes to the spatial design of the library in the regime of paradigm shift, there is a need for change in the traditionally understood role of the same. The role of the library is to create an environment that inspires creativity in learners and to reinforce their sense of participation. Users need sources of inspiration. That inspiration comes from casual or formal conversations which help to make connections. Emerging need for collaborative study space is basically against the traditional library design concept. Paradigm Shift: Paradigms are shifting due to changing perceptions and preferences of new generations. Evolving concepts like collaborative and interactive learning environment, use of digital technology as catalyst for change and environment-responsive open-book building command appreciation. To attract young people to the library in digital age, integration of digital technology with high-end equipment and services have important role for success. Collaborative and Interactive Learning Environment is one emerging requirement for successful modern library. The library has moved ahead of the existing model that optimizes individual learning environment to one that allows group-study or work. This has brought major shift from independent study mode to more collaborative and interactive learning. Young generations' preference for learning space's mix with academic and social functions is influencing addition of spaces for group study reinforcing multi-disciplinary studies together. In this interactive learning environment, it is important to design space supporting collaboration, sharing and experiments. Digital technology as catalyst brings access to wider variety of resources enhancing communication and interaction. This reduces barriers of place and time for users. Rapid changes in IT are reflected in the library's collection, services and spatial arrangements. In the digital age, speed of access and quantity of online information stored on a particular site is the benchmark. Young generations are dependent on and also importantly comfortable with digital tools provided by the library for convenience and to easily connect with others. Environment responsive library building itself can act as an educator. The building should have the qualities of imparting lesser impact to natural and man-made environment. There is a strong need to create comfortable and healthy conditions for its occupants and society. Elimination of negative environmental impact through skilful, sensitive design is an important consideration. Mix of appropriate passive and active strategies, for optimum use of natural resource can create users' comfort. This dissertation regarding "Design Guidelines for Modern Library Building" has been structured on six chapters like introduction, literature review, case studies, analysis & synthesis, design guidelines and conclusions and recommendations. The study focuses on the changing perception and need identification for modem library design as well as spatial requirements for environment responsive, user friendly modem library design. Enabling Digital Environment for 21st century library is a major consideration of this study. Integration of Passive planning strategies and advanced building services are also within the scope of work. Due to time constraint detailed spatial design and economic viability of proposed strategies for designing modem library building falls outside the scope of this study. First chapter introduces the overview of the problem, the issues regarding library at the present scenario and the need for the study when prediction is that the traditional library would become obsolete at digital age. Formations of aim and to achieve aim, the some [iv] objectives have been identified in first chapter. Defining the scopes and limitations has been covered in the introductory part of the dissertation. Methodology adopted for the research and organization of the thesis discussed here. Second chapter concentrates on literature review related to present scenario of library. For that data collection on library design issues from secondary sources like books, research paper, internet etc. have made. The literature review brought a clear understanding on importance of design in modern library building to accommodate paradigm shift, integration of environment responsive design issues and advanced building services. Case studies have been referred in third chapter to strengthen the understanding of the change required and ways to accommodate the same. Case studies selected from secondary sources are environment responsive modern library buildings from abroad: Philological Library from Berlin, National Library Building of Singapore and Frederic Lanchester Library from UK. Libraries visited by the present researcher from Indian campuses are: Indian Institute of Management, Ahmadabad and Teri University. Environment responsive strategies of Aquamall, Dehradun- a factory building has helped a lot to develop a firsthand understanding of how-to-do-it issue. These cases have helped a lot to learn from practical issues and experience. Structured model has been developed to analyze future-proof library design in the fourth chapter. This analysis model, LIB-ED is the basic structure covering multi-design criteria of modern library design to address new paradigm, like environment responsive built form planning issues, enabling digital environment and advanced building services. This is followed by 3 flowcharts, namely: "The planning process", "Digital technology as catalyst" and "Environment responsive strategies". The guidelines for modern library building have been introduced in the fifth chapter. Need for considerations of different climatic regions are highlighted. Economic viability is not the part of these proposed guidelines for the time constraint. Literature study regarding 21St century libraries, obsolescence crisis, the shifting paradigm of library design and inferences from case studies help to understand the present scenario of successful library designing and to identify needs. It is identified that the library, which is still a combination of the past (print collections) and the present (new information technologies), must be viewed with a new perspective. Some requirements for library design are constant forever which can be called continued need and some requires modification that can be called modified need. [vi For an example grand civic space with emphasis on the sitting, orientation, design, and decoration of the library are continued needs. And integration of collaborative interactive learning space, integration of digital technology etc are modified needs for designing modem library. One another important consideration in 21S` century is the building itself should stand as environment responsive building which can increase the awareness of people. The analysis model, LIB-ED and this is followed by 3 flowcharts, namely: "The planning process", "Digital technology as catalyst" and "Environment responsive strategies". helps to evolve design guidelines. These guidelines have been evolved following Indian standards and norms (ECBC 2007,NBC 2005,SP-41,other bureau of Indian standards, and green building rating system- LEED,GRIHA) and other primary and secondary sources. The design guidelines deals with main four issues like physical planning process of library designing, enabling digital technology, environment responsive passive planning strategies and active strategies & advanced building services. It has guiding principles regarding site level and building level built-form design issues and passive planning strategies. Five types of user activity for which space would need to be designed in a new library: information seeking, reader's space, connection & services, contemplation and recreation. Qualitative and quantitative data regarding library space designing has been covered here. Guidelines for Spatial qualities like thermal quality, day lighting, acoustical quality, indoor environmental quality has been discussed here. Guidelines related to passive planning strategies like land cover transformation, landscaping, orientation, different passive propositions, building envelope designing are discussed here. Guidelines regarding Futuristic approaches like hybrid digital library, the solution for modem library digitization process is proposed here. Some issues like Digital information Storage, digital technology preservation, accessibility problems and solutions, physical characteristics of server room are discussed here. Guidelines regarding advanced building services like access control system, elevator &, stairway control, plumbing system, HVAC system, lighting system, fire safety systems, power and video monitoring systems, are proposed here. The final chapter deals with conclusions and recommendations of this research study. The design guidelines are recommended for every types of library like academic, public or private libraries. Recommendations for future libraries are like improving spaces for study, enabling collaboration and connections across different disciplines, making the discovery process more powerful. The future research implications also have been discussed in this [Vi] chapter. Evolving some mechanism for inspiration among the library users group, can be developed in future. Future-proof Library design: The most important purpose of any spatial planning is effective response of the facility provided to cater the needs of its service population like students for a library building. For a library building, traditional design issues are collection and storage of resources in book form, ergonomic space and furniture design, efficient connectivity, advanced building services, and universal accessibility. Library planning historically has involved organization of storage, display and reading spaces to allow easy access for users and maintain serviceability by staff. Library must be user friendly. In the pre-digital age, emphasis had been given on the sitting, orientation, design, and decoration of library. In this age of cyberspace, real space or the physical library building made of bricks and mortar, still matters. Planning for libraries today should be premised on 24-hour access, with critical services and technology provided and located when and where they are needed. Functions of libraries are very important consideration of physical planning stage. Access to information, Supporting the creation and dissemination of scholarly work, Supporting collaboration and sharing, Discovery and serendipity, Library transparency, Library should space for inspiration, findability, these are the main functions of all library. Though basic function of library building will remain primarily unaltered, some modifications will be required to make it future-proof. Since the planning or designing stage itself, user friendliness should get its due priority. Built environment of future library should be comfortable, aesthetically pleasing, as well as an example for environment responsiveness. They should be model for green buildings using green technologies in facility design. Spatial quality or the quality of space is typically considered from two perspectives: comfort and flexibility. Zoning of library in future have a significant role. Students may have different perception and preference about ideal workspace. The designer needs to serve to these disparate requirements by establishing different zones. Interactive floors at libraries may create a new attraction in the physical library by creating a place where people may playfully meet and interact with digital materials. Future Collections of resources in Libraries require inventing new ways to make it wide as well as varied, accessible, both through print and non-print media. One important design issue is spatial need to sore and display collection of resources in book and CD form. Discovery process is one of the important traditional activities of research libraries. Expert and thoughtful cataloguing of collections like books, journals, and archives for disciplinary and interdisciplinary research is essential. The library should create . ways to facilitate increased personal control, fluidity, convenience and transparency to create more efficient and interesting discovery process. Flexibility is an important consideration of library design. The library functions being planned for today will need to be reconfigured in the future. The design can accommodate a wide range of individual preferences and abilities in future. Several principal design elements like articulation of the perimeter wall, the introduction of natural light, and placement of core areas for stairs, toilets, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning will remain relatively constant. The majority of space should offer flexibility, re-constructability for future expansion. May be large, open spaces can offer easy re-constructability, so that they could be reconfigured to meet future needs. Its space requires accommodation of evolving information technologies or change of learning culture like collaborative interactive learning flexibly enough. While the exact future of learning remains unknown, changing technology is inciting a distinct transformation. Libraries are already experimenting with ways to put these improvements in technology to use and should continue with these efforts of innovation. Tomorrows' library need to qualify as a space which is collaborative, digitech, user- friendly, contemplative, flexible, environment responsive, fitted with state-of-the art services, and finally aesthetically creating a landmark impression. The library of tomorrow would be an inspiring experience for learners barring age, creed and abilities.
Other Identifiers: M.Tech
Research Supervisor/ Guide: Mukherjee, Mahua
metadata.dc.type: M.Tech Dessertation
Appears in Collections:MASTERS' THESES ( A&P)

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