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|Title:||A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NATIONAL TRANSPORT SCENARIO IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES|
NATIONAL TRANSPORT SCENARIO
|Abstract:||In many cities of developing countries, population has been growing rapidly, coupled with limited financial resources available for investment in the development of urban infrastructure. This has produced severe transport problems. Concurent with the explosion in human population, there has been a striking increase in the automobile population. Both of them are generally concentrated in-major metropolitan areas. In the developing countries, private car has attracted less attention than public transport. In Bangkok, for example trips by car is only 10 percent of the total trips, while public transport accounts for 85 percent. Amongst the developing countries, Singapore and Malaysia fall into the first and second largest urban centers of car ownership. In those cities, high percentage in private vehicle ownership has created congestions. Some comprehensive solutions for the transport problems in developing countries have been implemented e.g by the provision of expressways, controls on car ownership, improvement of traffic management and restraining on car use by parking charges etc. In India and Indonesia, transportation studies have been conducted in many metropolitan cities. In the present studies two cities i.e Bombay in India and Jakarta in Indonesia have been selected as representative of the metropolitan cities in the developing countries. Ths data available for Bombay and Jakarta have been use for the development of models and subsequent analysis. iv. Trip generation/attraction have been modelled using, multiple regression technique. It is found that total population ,is the main parameter for trip generation, and number of jobs is found to be the main parameter for trip attraction for both cities. Trip distribution have been modelled by entropy maximisation gravity model. It is found that the parameter O of the model, which has been calibrated, for Jakarta is higher than that for Bombay. This reflects that travel made by the Jakarta residents is more sensitive to the travel cost than by the Bombay residents. Since railway is the cheapest transport mode in Bombay, and popular mode for the large proportion of the travel makers, while in Jakarta the bus, which normally have higher fare than railway, is the main mode for all the income groups. The trip attraction in Bombay is concentrated in Bombay Island, and accounts for 61 percent of the total attracted trips to the Bombay Metropolitan Region. Similarly in Jakarta, the largest trip attraction is found to be in the central area of Jakarta, and it accounts for 27 percent of the attracted trips to Jakarta. High concentration of the trip flows occur between the zones in Bombay Island and from Suburbs to CBD of Bombay Island. Similarly, in Jakarta trips are concentrated to the central area. It is interesting to note that in Bombay and Jakarta, the mass transport carries the bulk of the trips, but their modes are different. The percentage share of mass-transport in Bombay is approximately 72.0 % and remaining 28.0 % is by private vehicles and intermediate public transport like taxies, etc. In Jakarta the percentage share of mass transport is rather low i.e only 51.0 % and remaining 49.0 % is by private and all other intermediate modes. vi|
|Appears in Collections:||MASTERS' DISSERTATIONS (Civil Engg)|
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