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|Title:||PLANNING AND DESIGN OF MULTI MODAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM FOR DELHI|
|Keywords:||MULTI MODAL TRANSPORT|
|Abstract:||Transport has significant role to play in accelerating urban mobility .Urban mobility has different dimensions i.e. mobility for work, education, recreation and other needs; mobility by public, private and personalized modes; and mobility through facilitation of various transport infrastructure and services provided by the authorities concerned. In this context, the role of various modes of public transport in a city is of paramount importance for achieving efficient movement pattern but the same can not be achieved without modal integration of public transport in conjunction with non-motorized modes such as pedestrians, bicycles and cycle rickshaws. Hence, there is a felt need to evolve multi modal transport system particularly for metropolitan cities through proper integration of existing modes and design of physical infrastructures. Multi Modal Transport System is an integrated approach to incorporate all components of urban transport into a single coordinated, planned and operational system for efficient use of available transport resources and infrastructure to ensure better mobility within a wide range of mode choices. It relates to a single trip consisting of a combination of modes i.e. vehicular (bus, metro, car, BRTS, etc) or service modes (private/public/personalized) between which commuter has to make a transfer (i.e. change of mode) at transfer points. In other words, a multi modal transport system may be defined as one which enables performing a complete trip from origin to destination by a variety of modes depending on time, cost, weather conditions and the level of comfort desired. Further, seamlesstravel is a pre-requisite of the system. The population of Delhi is estimated to grow from 13.8 million (2001) to 23 million (2021). In the same period, intra city vehicular trips perday are estimated to grow from 10.7 million to 24.7 million. If about 15% inter city trips are added, the total trips to be catered by 2021 will be about 28.7 million per day. Thus 80% of these trips i.e. 24 million are required to be carried by the public transport by 2021. The present bus services, metro rail and integrated rail and bus transport (IRBT), if implemented as planned together, are estimated to carry about 15 million trips per day by 2021. Thus 9 million trips perday must be additionally catered to by other means of public transport. Hence it is necessary to take appropriate steps for optimally using the carrying capacity of public transport modes and their proper integration with other modes. Of late, share of public transport in Delhi has declined to 43% as compared to the desirable figure of 70-75% .Now-a-days; there is rise in the number of middle class population desirous of owning personalized modes. Further, automobile companies have also been coming up with new models of cars such as TATA's NANO, Bajaj Auto's Ultra Low-cost Mini-Car, etc at affordable price. Hence, personalized vehicles have been increasing. It is important to synchronize metro, bus, personalized modes, e/cto evolve multi modal transport system along with non-motorized transport. The objectives of the study are as follows: (i) to study key parameters with respect to quality of public transport system with the aim to reduce commuter dissatisfaction in multi modal transport framework; (ii) to evolve multi modal transport system by physical integration of different modes of mass transport particularly metro and bus; (iii) to understand travel behavior characteristics of the commuters (i.e. develop mode choice model) for analyzing travel demand of multi modal transport system; (iv) To develop methodology for integration of non-motorized transport with multi modal transport system and (v) to formulate policy guidelines for multi modal transport system. The critical appraisal of past research papers is limited to the objectives of the study and the same are reviewed with a view to appreciating the lessons learnt. At present, Line I of Delhi Metro is fully operational and the same has been selected as study corridor. Five metro stations i.e. Rithala, Rohini (West), Pitampura Inderlok and Kashmere Gate have been selected where primary survey was conducted and methodology developed. The quality of service is reflected in the commuter' degree of satisfaction due to transit performance which is an area of concern for transit operators, customer service personnel, transit planners, transit facilitators, etc. Hence, the quantification of commuter satisfaction at three different locations has been done by selecting appropriate attributes. The Impact Score Method has been adapted to measure commuter' satisfaction. Higher the score, lesser the satisfaction associated with these attributes. The analysis and results have identified various attributes which cause least satisfaction to the commuter and requires greater attention by the transit authority. Accordingly, improvement measurements have been suggested for all three locations. The physical integration of bus at metro station has been studied at Rithala station in terms of inter modal transfer, weather protected transit shelter, parking facilities, pedestrian movement, covered path ways, etc. Adequate space is needed at the ground for interchange facilities around bus stops and metro stations for smooth transfer of commuters from bus routes to metro. Park and Ride facilities need to be provided at the metro stations to promote transit ridership in terms of personalized vehicles and to use metro. Based on this study, an improved layout for integration of metro and bus has been proposed. Delhi has multi modal transport system and commuters are mainly dependent on bus, metro, personalized modes, etc. Primary survey has been conducted and data related to work-journey has been analyzed in Multi Nomial Logit(MNL) through TransCAD to assess mode choice behavior of the commuter on Delhi Metro Line I. In-Vehicle- Travel-Time (IVTT), Out-Vehicle-Travel-Time (OVTT) and Travel Cost (Cost) are taken as attributes. The multi logit regression gives a calibrated utility function for travel by each mode which further defines probability of mode choice for the commuter. Sensitivity analysis based on 'changes in cost' and 'change in OVTT' have been done and accordingly 'change in metro and bus rider ship' may be achieved. Integration of non-motorized transport (NMT i.e. pedestrians, bicycles and cycle rickshaws) has been suggested in both design measures and policy options. The studysuggests various measures to reduce vulnerability of non-motorized users. Due to implementation of metro, commuters shifted from road based modes to metro due to less congestion, accident free scenario, less pollution, as well as savings in travel time and cost. In this research work, investigation has been done to assess the time saved and cost saved due to modal shift. Transport is a State Government subject and hence promotion of public transport and enhancement of its modal share depends on policy decisions taken by local authorities and concerned transport department. Hence, formulation of multi modal transport is an important step to promote such a concept in medium sized cities also. The multi modal transport policy integration with other sectors such as education, health, real estate, etc can help to achieve a more inclusive society. The study also deals with policy matters related to pedestrians, bicycles, cycle rickshaws, personalized modes, local environment, setting up of dedicated urban transport fund at city level and state level, institutional framework, national level data bank: national urban transport information system, Ml planning norms, strategies for improvement of sustainable transport, art and aesthetics in transit, control of car traffic, transport as a multi-sectoral policy, etc. The applications of this research works are many. The results may be used to enhance the reputation and image of public transport as well as planning and design of such multi modal transport system in medium sized cities.|
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