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|Title:||GRASS ROOT PLANNING METHODOLOGY FOR INTEGRATED DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT: CASE STUDY HARDWAR|
|Authors:||Jain, R. K.|
|Abstract:||Development is a planned and dynamic process encompassing multiple actions and orientations that affect the environment, community and quality of life. Planning and development covers all the spatial manifestations of economic policies and human activities and is a complex process. Each investment has a definite physical manifestation and geographical location which generates a chain of development impulse affecting the activities of another sector resulting in a related spatial pattern. The coordination and integration of economic and spatial planning is, therefore, inevitable to achieve a desirable pattern ofdevelopment Till date, most of the National/State policies on investment, undertake the planning activities only to certain specified area of specific interest and the schemes and programmes are proposed and implemented in piecemeal manner and very little physical progress has been achieved resulting into the neglect of regional/ sub regional planning and a real integrated approach at grass root level. With this in mind the aim ofthis research is to evolve an integrated Spatio-Economic Development Model for the state through district which will serve a useful purpose in district planning. In a sense, the planning at grass root level i.e. at district level will try to link development potential emerging through local plans and initiatives, to the National/State policies. It will harmonise the planning from bottom to top as a cross function and at the same time district planning is comprehensive as it covers all socio-economic and political aspects maintaining vertical as well as horizontal linkages i.e. functional and spatial integration. It is intended to apply the research findings to non Metropolitan cities of the plains ofNorth India with specific application to Hardwar district. To begin with, the literature survey has been carried out, based on which certain methodological issues in approaching the district planning have been identified. Urban planning is often characterized as the distribution ofvarious economic and physical activities at different level and occupies an important stage in the whole development process. The decision making process of the planning authority, therefore, should be based on physical manifestation and geographical location of each investment. Increase in population, uncoordinated development activities, institutional failure and political preferences result is rather slow rate of flow of benefits. A little change in any one of these factors brings about a remarkable change in the region eventually affecting its land use pattern. Planning commission guidelines (1969) stressed on the involvement of local government and people in fixing the priorities for planning and the National Commission on Urbanization (1988) stressed the need for spatial planning approach through strengthening the Panchayti Raj Institutions. The 73rd and 74th Constitution Amendment Act (1992) further provides a special status to local governments as a third tier government where urban and rural local bodies i.e. Panchayats and Municipalities are delegated the power, authority and responsibility to prepare development plans at local area level and at district level. The enlarged scope, coverage and approach to district planning would, thus change the planning process. The literature survey is followed by case studies where district planning has been accepted as the primary and viable planning unit. The case studies by and large emphasize on one major objective of planning that the centralized area planning approaches restrict their premise to rural area plans and fails to detail out a methodology of integrating urban area plans with overall district plan, which is a pre-requisite of district planning exercise expect N.C.U. report where Integrated District Development Plan has been considered as a key instrument for crystallizing the multilevel approach to district planning. A comprehensive district profile of Solan District provides an overview of the resources endowments, demographic and settlement scenario, economy and level of infrastructure available .Such a profile is an essential step in the district planning process. Analysis of the development status of the district and dynamics of change have led to the identification of issues pertaining to imbalance in the level of development and resource base (physical, economic and man made). These issues were prioritized and taken up to identify the potential and thrust area followed by projection and formulation of integrated District Development plan. in Realizing the limitations of the existing district planning process, it is essential to formulate an appropriate and pragmatic Spatio-Economic Plan for the district on the concept of "planning from below" to address the short and long term development needs of the people and area. The Spatio-Economic plan is a perspective plan for 20 years indicating area specific strategies for development of all sectors, incorporating the needs and priorities of local people and compiled as Five Year Plan and Annual Plan. The programmes and schemes suggested in Five Year Plan are to be prioritized under Annual Plan. The schemes under state and district sector would be identified along with their outlays, location wise, under each sector. The model for Spatio- Economic planning integrating the physical development with investment policies and employment generating activities will be supportive and promotive of optimum utilization of resources. The model provides an integrated picture of all interactions and effects within the urban system and will be used as sensitivity analysis on a range of polices with regard to the desired objective and envisaging any possible variation with out deviating from the main objective. Effective and efficient planning of urban development requires current and accurate information at each step of decision making. The data for the present study is collected at local level in disaggregated form andthen aggregated to the higherorder units. The data pertaining to physiography, demography, settlement scenario, land utilization pattern for agricultural, industries and infrastructure (physical, social and economical) was analyzed and the appraisal of on going programmes and schemes (of state sector and district sector) in Hardwar District was done. Identified issues, problems and potentials become the inputs for formulation of integrated Spatio-Economic Development Plan. Based on the identified issues, potentials and thrust areas and applying the proposed model / methodology an integrated Spatio-Economic Development Plan for Hardwar district was formulated. IV A humble effort has been made in the study to develop a methodology for Spatio- Economic Development of the district so that the benefit of planning may reach the poor and underprivileged at the gross root. Various kind of relationships emanating as development proceeds can be appropriately dealt with using the defined methodology. It is firmly believed that the proposed model for the Integrated Spatio-Economic Development would serve a useful purpose in District planning.|
|Appears in Collections:||DOCTORAL THESES (A&P)|
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