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|Title:||WATER MANAGEMENT IN URBAN RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT|
|Abstract:||India's water crisis in urban areas is predominantly due to poormanagement of water. The growth of urban population is responsible for decreasing per capita availability of water, as the supply cannot be increased due to scarce raw water resources. On the other hand the per capita demand of water is increasing in urban area due to higher standards of living and lifestyle changes. India's urban population is increasing at a faster rate. According to the 2001 census, about 28 %of Indian populations (about 300 million) live in urban areas. This figure expected to become double to 634 million or 46 % of the total population by 2030. The water requirements in urban area are expected to double by 2025-30. This is going to put immense pressure on the already strained centralized water supply systems of urban areas. A study by the Asian Development Bank (2007) showed that in 20 cities in India the average duration of supply was only 4.3 hours per day. No city had continuous supply. The situation will deteriorate if innovative water management is not adopted. In an effort to tackle this situation, the government and NGOs have initiated various programmes, policies and projects. However, these efforts are not comprehensive. Proper utilization of site-specific contributions of different parameters of water resources management and planning are not practiced in India. It is observed that no statutory body has prepared a comprehensive urban water management plan comprising ofall aspects of conservation of water and rain water harvesting along with reuse of treated waste water. It is also seen that appropriate approaches for urban water management are not considered and tested in India. The residential water requirement in urban area comprises more than 75 % of the total water demand but this sector is grossly subsidized and mismanaged. Therefore, there is an urgent need to investigate the possibility of urban management approaches and techniques to find out suitable options to solve residential urban water problems. The design for the urban water infrastructure services is mainly driven by public health considerations, rather than environmental sustainability. The urban water management remains a complex and fragmented area relying on traditional, technical, linear management approach. Traditional approaches to urban water management provide little emphasis on water efficiency, recycling, energy efficiency and protection of environment. The task of urban water management is not simply a water-engineering problem, but it is more a question of the integration of land and water planning, and management under new set of objectives for provision of water. The reorientation of urban water policy towards more sustainable directions with the use of different management practices and their wise combinations based on the local situation is necessary. There are many significant research works done in the field of urban water system, urban water supply distribution and management, forecasting of daily water demand, urban runoff modeling, urban imperviousness runoff estimation, storm water and drainage network and management analysis and optimization of waste water systems, urban waste water management and treatment technology, water conservation, ground water recharge in urban areas, evaluation of residential water demand, decision support system for urban water management etc. But such research work in Indian context is limited due to the non-availability of relevant data on urban water provision. The comprehensive water management, low impact development approach and water sensitive design have been discussed and successes of such approaches are documented by several researchers in urban watermanagement. But such approaches are rarely tried in India. In urban area the centralized system of water supply doesn't consider different management approaches for different types of residential development for variable water requirements, technological options for water recycle and reuse, water harvesting and conservation potentials etc. Individual aspects of water supply, water demand, water conservation, water recycling are researched but comprehensive approach with integration of these elements to make the system sustainable are not considered in India. There is basically no policy guideline or institutional arrangement to achieve integrated approach of water management in different types of residential development in urban areas in India. Therefore, study has been done to arrive at urban residential water management options with suggestion of suitable strategies and policy guidelines for efficient urban residential water management. in Reviews of different types of water management approaches and techniques have been done in general and urban water management in particular. The problems and prospects of Delhi's water situation have been studied through field survey with a view to evaluate the applicability ofthe urban management approaches and techniques as reviewed. Primary field surveys were conducted in selected residential areas of Delhi to study the residential water use patterns and potential for sustainable water management in residential development. It includes three types of residential development like Plotted development, Cooperative Group Housing and DDA Group Housing development which have been selected from four sectors of Dwarka, a planned urban extension of Delhi. Primary sample survey has been conducted and results analyzed. Results of findings are appropriately used to formulate sustainable management options and measures for efficient water management in the three types of residential development. The findings also helped to estimate the water saving potentials for these developments. Water saving, space requirement and cost implications of the application of various management techniques on these residential developments are also evaluated. It has been found that there is a substantial amount of water saving if techniques like rainwater harvesting, greywater recycling, water saving devices and metering is implemented in these residential developments. Techniques like water harvesting, implementation of water saving devices and metering is possible for all types of development with marginal cost implications. But the implementation of grey water system in plotted development is restricted due to space constrain and maintenance of such systems. Finally policy guidelines are recommended for the efficient water management in these residential developments to address future water management in a sustainable manner and to overcome water scarcity and further deterioration ground water quality and quantity.|
|Appears in Collections:||DOCTORAL THESES (A&P)|
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