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|Title:||EARTHQUAKE DISASTER PREPAREDNESS FOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT IN HIMALAYAN REGION|
|Authors:||Joshi, Ila Gupta Nee Ila Anna|
|Abstract:||India is prone to almost all kinds of natural and man-made disasters especially to earthquakes. In the last 16 years India has witnessed six major earthquakes, three of which occurred in Himalayan ranges. The sudden impact of earthquakes and the realization of disaster reduction possibilities emphasize the need of research in the preparedness aspects of earthquakes. The review of literature in the field of earthquake preparedness identified research gap in terms inadequacy in guidelines for community involvement; lack of standardized methodology and risk indicator for formulating preparedness plans for rural settlements; neglect of highly vulnerable Himalayan settlements; and marginal involvement of architects and planners in earthquake disaster management. Hence the research work is carried out with the aim of formulating a practical and holistic earthquake disaster preparedness plan, for a micro region of Himalayas. The research methodology formulated on the basis of literature review, mainly consists of activity analysis, vulnerability analysis, resource potential analysis, generating a hypothetical earthquake scenario within the region, estimation of likely losses in terms of building damage and human casualties and development of appropriate risk indicator for settlements. All these facilitate formulation of preparedness plans and action plans. Narendranagar block of Tehri-Garhwal district in Himalayan state of Uttarakhand is selected for detailed investigations and proposals. This selected sub region has a total population of 103032 living in 214 villages and 17 market towns. All relevant data about Narendranagar block was collected through secondary surveys, a brief pilot survey and a detailed primary survey of representative samples of 15 villages. The construction typology prevailing in the Narendranagar block is found to be vulnerable and influenced by the accessibility of the villages. All the constructions existing in Narendranagar block are categorized as per descriptions provided in the MSK scale and their respective numbers are estimated. The in vulnerability of settlements due to other factors like landslides, inaccessibility, river proximity, high altitudes and various social factors is analyzed. An inventory of potential of existing resources in terms of infrastructure facilities, institutional setup, manpower availability and material supplies in the sub region is made. A hypothetical earthquake scenario within the region is developed with epicenter near Tapowan at 30°08'10" N and 78°20'30"E and magnitude 7.5 determined from the major tectonic elements and microzonation studies. The effect of this earthquake on residential buildings estimated that almost 5.14% buildings of Narendranagar block would experience collapse while other 19.8% buildings would experience high damage, rendering almost 26% total population homeless. The human casualties in these buildings are estimated to be 990 (0.96%) persons would be dead or unsavable. The locations of most probable landslides and the settlements rendered inaccessible due to landslides are identified. The assessment of available resources for handling earthquake of this magnitude is estimated for their shortcomings and further needs are computed. A Seismic Risk Indicator (SRI) developed, identifies 12 villages of Narendranagar block which are at very high risk. The plan formulated, gives measures for vulnerability reduction, detailed preparedness plan with focus on strengthening community capacities proposed for 5 most critical activities viz. damage assessment, search and rescue, relief distribution, medical assistance and temporary sheltering for emergency management. A model settlement level preparedness plan worked out for 3 selected settlements, consists of details such as material requirements, location of critical facilities, key persons and training aspects. The proposed guidelines for effective implementation of plans, the evolved planning norms and general recommendations for vulnerability reduction are generally applicable throughout India. The scope identified for further research would achieve the objectives in a comprehensive way.|
|Appears in Collections:||DOCTORAL THESES (A&P)|
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