Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://localhost:8081/xmlui/handle/123456789/478
Authors: Negi, Manika
Issue Date: 2001
Abstract: Physical development over space to satisfy human needs has been largely responsible for destruction of nature. Mountains and hills have been conquered and crisis as regards sustainable management of resources seems building up. Scientists, environmentalists and planners are very much concerned over environmental and ecological equilibrium, and see sustainable development (SD) approach as a solution to all present and possible future environmental problems. SD has been defined as the development that meets the needs and requirements of the present generations without affecting the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The challenge faced by planners is not just to accelerate the economic development alone but with it, maintaining the essential integrity of earth's ecological system. Hills, particularly the Himalayan region constitute about 18 percent of the total area and support six percent of the total population of the country. These areas arc atreasure-house ofresources such as water, biological diversity, minerals, forest products, agricultural products, tourism, recreation, etc. but have tremendously been affected by both natural and manmadc factors. These hill areas have remained socially and economically backward owing to topographical and demographic peculiarities such as fragility, marginality, inaccessibility, increasing population, and lack of infrastructure. The situation is alarming and hence much emphasis is laid hi the national five year plans (FYP) for integrated development of hill districts. The approach enunciated in the Eighth FYP fails to handle area development in acomprehensive and integrated manner. Efforts have been made with little or no attention on intcrsectoral linkages and environmental conservation. Considering the significance of hill area development the study has focused on formulating a planning model for SD of Garhwal hill region in the newly formed stale of Uttaranchal. Uttarkashi district in Garhwal region has been taken as case study. Recognising the need of effective instruments for implementation of plans at the micro level a watershed (Khurmola Gad) has been selected for conducting an indepth study of the micro level hill system. The research has been aimed at (i) evolving a theoretical framework for working out plans for hills keeping the socio-economic and ecological parameters in view, and (ii) constructing a planning model forSD in Garhwal hills. To begin with literature survey has been carried out based on which certain methodological issues in approaching SD in hills have been identified. The ecological crisis is the basis of unsustainability in the hills. Increase in population, uncoordinated development activities, disregard to the objective conditions, institutional failures and political preferences result in unprecedented degradation and depletion of natural resources. Alittle change in any one of the factors brings about a remarkable change in the hill system eventually affecting its land use pattern. It is understood that the complex intcrdcpcndcncics and intcrlinkagcs between various systems pose the basic challenge in planning. For achieving sustainability, linkages between the different sectors need to be studied systematically and therefore the concept of carrying capacity is identified. The conventional planning models, for plains arc based on asteady state and determine demand- supply balance without internalizing the environmental parameters, and therefore it is realized that these models cannot be applied to hills. The regional and area level plans for hills which are arecent development, identify broad development issues and imperatives in terms of environmental sensitivity without addressing to the effective instruments of plan implementation at micro level. Thus the need of effective instruments for implementation at micro level is emphasized. With due regard to the dynamics of natural processes, elements that should underlie the synthesis ofa suitable approach have been identified, and the need for an interactive, multi-dimensional, dynamic and open ended systems approach recommended. For arriving at an integrated framework forjudging the alternative policy options, parameters that help assess carrying capacity (CC) have been defined. These parameters arc useful in determining causes of unsustainability. A theoretical framework incorporating the dynamic changes and factors for preparing plans is then introduced. The various steps identified for a coherent assessment and systematic management process at the micro level include assessment of existing functions and their carrying capacity, identification of key factors and decision variables affecting sustainability, functional relationship between variables, and analysis of solutions for arriving at desired goal. This is followed by an empirical analysis of the problem to define a model planning process for Garhwal hills. Survey research methods have been applied for acquiring a comprehensive information about various physical, socio-economic andother factors concerning development. An extensive household level survey was conducted using survey schedules (questionnaires) so as to identify the various control parameters and their functions with respect to sustainability. The data was then fed into the computer and processed using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Scientists) software. The natural resource base information based on Landsat imagery has been analysed by making use of the GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The study identifies food, fodder, fuel and financial standing (F(s)) of the people as four basic issues causing unsustainability in the area. It is seen that the ecological carrying capacity delimits the availability of these basic resources and the absence of off-farm employment results in poor and inefficient management of natural resources. The apparent conflict in the area is between the three principal components i)ecological issues, ii) fulfilment of basic needs or local people viz, food, fodder and fuel, and iii) economic issues such as lack ofoff-farm employment and total dependence on primary sector with cash crops grown in forest lands which is an unsustainable practice. The basic needs and the economic support systems of the people arc thus iv the primary issues. Agriculture, Biomass, Career development sustainability are identified as key factors or the indicators ofsustainability addressing the problems of4F(s). These key factors arc conflicting goals as regards land use development which is the basis for ecological balance in nny area . In order to control the irrational use of land, need for sustainable solutions for agriculture, biomass and career development (ABCd) has been suggested. For sustainability these solutions besides meeting the basic requirements also need to be consistent with the resource potential and the ecological framework of the area. A functional relationship between the variables of land transformation process and the physical environment is defined thereby modelling a framework for SD planning in hills(SDPH). Finally to address the problems of 4Fs and to avoid the negative impact on landuse a model 'Luc In ABCds' has been proposed. The model aims at landuse control integrating agriculture, biomass, and career development sustainability. Models integrating the interdependence between systems has been extended to hills. The model so developed aims at gauging the distributive impacts of policy measures and identifying efficient solutions. The model is illustrated using the Microsoft Excel Software.Two scenarios based on (i) Business as usual (BAU) policy, and (ii) joint demand and supply management measures, have been analysed. A humble effort has been made in the study for developing a framework for micro level planning in hills so that it crnestly reaches grass-roots level and SD is achieved. Various kinds of relationships emanating as development proceeds can be appropriately dealt with using the defined framework. The Garhwal hills are in the process of development which is likely to accelerate as it is part of a recently formed separate hill state Uttaranchal. It is firmly believed that the proposed model for SDPH would bring in SD in the hill region.
Other Identifiers: Ph.D
Research Supervisor/ Guide: Tiwari, R. S.
metadata.dc.type: Doctoral Thesis
Appears in Collections:DOCTORAL THESES (A&P)

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