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|Title:||EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DRY PINE NEEDLES FOR PAPER MAKING|
|Keywords:||DRY PINE;CHEMICAL;KAPPA NUMBER;PAPER TECHNOLOGY|
|Abstract:||The report entitled "Experimental study of dry pine needles for paper making" reports the value addition to the Pine needles (leaves). There is a huge quantity of fall of these leaves in pine forests every year, which dry up and pore a fire hazard to the forests. In this project pine needles were processed at various pulping conditions and the results were compared for yield and kappa number. The Dry Pine needles has been cooked by alkaline sulphite process. It is observed that acceptable pulping results are achieved with alkaline sulphite pulping with mechanical refining. The first set of pulping experiment of Dry Pine Needles is carried out at 8% of total chemical charge at three different temperature levels (120°C, 140°C and 160°C) under same liquor ratio (4:1) and cooking time (4 hours). It has been observed that the screened yield increases with the chemical charge. In the 'second set of experiment pulping is done at 12% chemical charge under same liquor ratio (4:1) and time (4 hours). Then the next set of experiments are carried out at 16% and 18% chemical charge. The results improved with increase in chemical charge and pulping temperature.. The yield is highest i.e. 46.65% and kappa number is also lowest i.e. 34.02 at 18% chemical charge and 160°C. The pulp is tested for different strength properties. This pulp is blended with 10%, 20% and 30% of kenaf pulp. The sheets are then tested for strength properties. The pulp showed a marked improvement in strength properties with 30% kenaf pulp blending. The pulp is also blended with 20% of rag pulp and tested for strength properties. The best yield pulp i.e.the pulp obtained at 18% chemical charge and 160°C pulping temperature, is bleached with three different sequences viz. CEHH, CEHD and CEDPD. Sheets are prepared from the bleached pulps and are tested for brightness and strength properties. The regression equations for the pulping results are also developed. The pine needle oil extracted by sub-critical and super-critical extraction gives yield of 4.33% and 5% respectively. The oil is then run in GC and the number of components are determined.|
|Research Supervisor/ Guide:||Ray, A. K.|
|Appears in Collections:||MASTERS' DISSERTATIONS (Paper Tech)|
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