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|Title:||RECLAMATION OF SEWAGE EFFLUENT|
|Authors:||Pasrija, H. D.|
|Keywords:||CIVIL ENGINEERING;WATER SUPPLY;RECLAMATION;SEWAGE EFFLUENT|
|Abstract:||There are many areas throughout the world where the available water supply may soon become inadequate to meet the ever-increasing domestic, industrial and agricultural demands. This is practically true in arid regions which depend on importation of water to meet current needs. The problem is not limited to arid climates. Many other areas which have suff-icient yearly rainfall to meet only the present-day demands would also benefit greatly by the provision of additional water to meet, for example, supplemental irrigation demands during draught periods. Incidental reclamation of sewage water has been practised for many years. Indeed, the process is as old as the sewage disposal itself. Cesspools and septic tanks have return-ed sewage affluents to the soil for centuries. Sewage farms and farms utilizing sewage effluents have done likewise,.but with more concern for the public health problems involved. Planned reclamation; as distinct from incidental reclamation, is a more recent development. It is des.igned specifically to produce a usable water from sewage. Recent and past studies have demonstrated that not only may water be recl-aimed from sanitary sewages and many industrial wastes for secondary domestic use, use in industry, agriculture and pisci-culture but it may also be returned to the groundwater. Altho-ugh, at present, direct return of reclaimed wastewater into a municipal water-supply reservoir might meet with considerable resistance on the part of the public health authorities yet alternatively, it is possible to provide spreading grounds for the eventual deep percolation of reclaimed wastewater to the underlying aquifers. In many water-shortage areas where large quanti-ties of sewage are now being discharged into the ocean, planned reclamation is receiving serious consideration, since it may relieve the overdraft on local water resources more economically than importing of water from distant places or the deminerali-sation of sea and brackish water. The processes necessary for the reclamation of sewage effluents are essentially those used for sewage disposal and water purification. Reclamation works designed for water production would make maximum use of the local facilities of sewage disposal. Only the cost of additional works may be considered as the real cost of planned reclamation projects. The cost of reclamation of sewage effluents has been shown to be competitive with other sources of supplemental water and frequently is less in many arid-regions of the|
|Research Supervisor/ Guide:||Mathur, R. P.|
|Appears in Collections:||MASTERS' DISSERTATIONS (Civil Engg)|
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