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Authors: Gautam, Randhir Kumar
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: Agriculture is the main source of people's livelihood in Tons Basin. Most of the crops are grown there under rainfed conditions The normal rainfall of the district is about 927-1185 mm, out of this about 88% is received during monsoon season. The long breaks of monsoon (dry spells) during monsoon season and wide variations in the quantum of rainfall from year to year result in frequent failure of crops and consequently the entire basin is drought prone. The hydrological and agricultural aspects of drought have been studied in Tons Basin. The 40 years daily rainfall data from 1969-2008 for all the blocks has been analyzed in order to portend the drought frequency ,duration ,dates of onset and withdrawal of monsoon and critical dry spells .According to rainfall departure analysis the different parts of the basin had experienced drought with an average frequency of 6 years. It was observed that the Katni Station has faced least numbers of drought over past 34 years. The probability of occurrence of 75% normal rainfall varies from 0.72 to 0.88. Also the ranges of annual rainfall at 75 % probability level varies from 691-752 mm at Allahabad to 990-1022 mm at Katni. The period between 25 th June to 13 th September is found as the average length of monsoon in Tons Basin. On an average the monsoon period incorporates two intervening critical dry spells in bad monsoon. Rainfall records witnessed that the distribution of rainfall in time and space and critical dry spells play major role in crop loss rather than the gross annual amount of rainfall. The crop evapotranspiration (ETcrop) has been computed using reference —crop evapotranspiration (ETp) and crop coefficient (Kc) values. The ETp has been calculated using Monteith,J.L. (1965) method for Rewa ,Satna, Allahabad Stations The water requirement for different crops namely paddy ,maize and Soyabean have been estimated as 506 mm, 472 mm and 403 mm respectively The irrigation requirement for the critical dry spells have been worked out to plan for alternate supplemental irrigation to save crops from dry spells during the rainy season.supplementry irrigation requirements for 1st & 2"d critical dry spells at Allahabad for Paddy Crop are about 23 mm and 15 mm respectively. The Tons Basin needs appropriate focus on alternative provisions for supplementary irrigation to the khariff crop as well as for providing assured water supply at least for one irrigation to rabi crop This leads to the need for extending irrigation facilities by conserving the monsoon runoff in tanks /ponds/reservoir to take care of the requirements in deficit — rainfall months.
Other Identifiers: M.Tech
Appears in Collections:MASTERS' DISSERTATIONS (Hydrology)

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