Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://localhost:8081/xmlui/handle/123456789/209
Authors: Mathur, Dharya
Issue Date: 1994
Abstract: Energy consumption base broadly encompasses : commercial energy (coal, oil, gas, hydro and nuclear) and non-commercial energy (mainly firewood, agricultural waste i.e. biomass and animal wastes). The level of consumption of energy is often taken as an indicator of the stage of economic development of a country and the standard of living of its people. Energy, transport and communications represent the three vital infrastructural secotrs which determine the level of industrial and agricultural activity of a country. Of these, commercial enerqy is perhaps the most crucial, as even the transport depends on it as a direct input. Thus, non-availability and high cost of commercial enerqv may act as a constraint to development both directly and indirectly and thereby high-lighting its importance. Energy crisis in a developing country like India, is further aggravated on account of the overall pressure of increasing population on the demand and consumption, coupled with the fact that the country is not rich in easily convertible, high quality energy resources, and the resources available are not fully tapped. Thus, in view of this situation, the energy crisis is very likely to further aggravate in the future years to come. In view of this fact an attempt was made to study the pattern of commercial energy consumption in DehraDun since DehraDun is dominated by the cosmopolitan culture which generally consumed a higher share of commercial energy. iii The objective of the study was to estimate energy consumption by various sectors and their percentages in the total energy consumption and to ascertain the trends in the pattern of energy consumption in view of the socio-economic situation. Comparisons were made between energy consumption and the various income groups and measures for energy conservation and demand management systems were suggested. Case for the alternative energy resources in the study area was examined together with consideration of the policy implications of the study and relevant suggestions were made. For achieving the objectives, area falling under the DehraDun Municipal Board limits was chosen for the study. Of the total 34 wards, 5 were selected based on broad socio-economic lines and 4% of the total number of respondents from each selected ward were randomly chosen, together with radomly chosen hotels, factories, small businessmen, offices, artisans from the industrial and related sectors. Sample for the transport sector was also chosen in a similar manner. The reference period of the study pertained to the year 1990-91 and 1991-92. However, the data collection was done through pre-tested questionnaire for which an intensive survey method was adopted. The analytical tools which were applied in the study area were tabular analysis. Apart from this, the total sample was divided into four major income groups in the household sector : (a) Below Rs.1000; (b) Rs. 1000-3000; (c) Rs.3000-7000; (d) Rs.7000 and above. While in the industrial sector the turnover level groups were as follows : (in lakhs) iv (a) Below Rs.50; (b) Rs.50-100; (c) Rs.100-300; (d) Rs.300 and above, in the commercial sector the turnover level groups were as follows : (in lakhs) (a) Below Rs.50; (b) Rs.50-100; (c) Rs.100- 150; (d) Rs150 and above. A single equation model of the form DE = f(xT V X3) b1 b2 h DE = a*1 • *2 • x3 was used to estimate the demand for commercial energy. Where 'a' was the intercept, x to x were independent variables, b to b ° 13 were elasticity coefficients associated with x , x and x respectively. In the household sector it was found that the consumption of commercial energy depended on income levels, prices of energy forms, psychology of individuals and the convenience in use of the energy forms. The behaviour of consumers had undergone a drastic change and there was also a shift from coal, firewood and kerosene to LPG, electricity and petrol. High vehicular ownership was on the increase due to psychological pressures and the demonstration effect, which made people purchase vehicles without much need for them. Considering the country's sustained development, the standards of living in the study area were high and consequently the total energy consumption had trebled from 1980 to 1990. In the industrial and related sectors it was found that the study area was not a highly industrialized one and only medium and small scale factories were functioning together with small business and shopkeepers. Due to strict enforcement of anti-pollution laws in the study area, mainly electricity was being consumed for production, together with coal, wood, LPG and other forms of energy. The public transport sector comprised of buses, tempos, scooter-rickshaws, taxies and trucks for the intra-city road traffic. These vehicles were mostly diesel driven because of being cheaper. The policy options as suggested in the study were to link environmental considerations with energy management and to improve the public transport facilities in the area. Alternative fuels which were recommended were : Mini-hydel Plants, solar energy, sewage treatment-cum-biogeneration and utilisation of plants. Energy conservation through labelling of energy consuming devices, incentive schemes and education were suggested. Again the populari sation of solar energy, could be questionable based on consideration of adaptability by the general masses in the city. However, education of the consumers in regard to energy use and consumption, energy conservation and extension education could prove much useful in mitigating the energy (commercial) crisis.
Other Identifiers: Ph.D
Research Supervisor/ Guide: Raghuvanshi, C.S.
metadata.dc.type: Doctoral Thesis
Appears in Collections:DOCTORAL THESES (HSS)

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