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dc.contributor.authorSingh, Vandana-
dc.guideMukherjee, Mahua-
dc.description.abstractThere has been an increased demand of energy due to the pressing needs of heating and cooling of the buildings in the recent years. But with growing concerns over global warming - and ' climate change, more building owners/managers/designers have decided to "GO GREEN". They have taken measures to reduce the building's energy consumption to help fight the war on• climate change. It is estimated that 30 percent of any building's electricity bill is typically represented by the cost of operating lighting, systems and around 60 percent by the cost of operating HVAC. The built environment is responsible for up to 40% of total energy use. In India, building sector represents 33% of energy consumption. Energy efficient systems can reduce the power consumption by 50% in existing buildings and 35% in new construction. PURPOSE The purpose of this report is to provide certain control strategies and techniques in order to save energy which is used in the malls and shopping complexes. There are = . countless studies covering energy use in complex buildings in general;• but. there are only a few published scientific papers on shopping malls. To -this date, little statistics ' :. have been published on use of energy in shopping malls. The fact that the- number of shopping malls are increasing proves the importance of further work: This report-, provides certain techniques to reduce energy demand in the shopping malls in terms of lighting and HVAC. If energy for lighting is decreased; it will result in a twofold gain since less energy is needed for the removal of surplus heat. After demands have been reduced, new alternative HVAC systems can be designed and adjusted to increase energy efficiency. Hence, the energy efficiency in-a shopping - mall is the major agenda to save its consumption and to:reduce-electricity=bill. PROJECT OBJECTIVES •The . report is a unique guide that compiles' information collected, =from books, journals, internet and other sources along with the simulation of an existing shopping .- . mall "Gurgaon Central Mall". This has helped in checking the energy consumption before and after the modifications done over it. The report is intended of being aware of the threat generated by climate change, sustainability of energy supplies- Page iv Design Criteria for Energy Efficient Shopping Mall 1 2012 and rapidly increasingly cost, to explore the methods of providing indoor air quality especially in terms of illumination and space conditioning by maximizing the use of passive energy systems, to identify the optimal energy efficiency through the selection of appropriate materials for glazing to reduce the heat gain and to identify the solutions for the reduction of Lighting and HVAC load. PROJECT METHODOLOGY To start with this project, several stages have been identified • INTRODUCTION: this stage deals with the coverage on electricity consumption by various sectors of buildings. • THEORETICAL BACKGROUND: The history of markets in Indian context and the evolution of mall through various stages have been explained at this stage. o AIM AND OBJECTIVES: Here the goal which needs to be achieved in a limited time frame has been identified by mentioning the scopes and limitations. • DATA COLLECTION: This section has. dealt with the collection of certain information.-This is done in two parts: primary. and'secondary. • CASE STUDIES: This falls under primary information and deals with the live survey conducted and the interviews by many 'people. The analysis of.-case- studies has been done on the basis of: physical characteristics, functional performance, demand reduction strategies and energy performance of the building studied. • LITERATURE REVIEW: This falls under the secondary information and deals with the data has been collected from books, journals, internet and other sources. In this data has been divided into two categories to understand certain • things: passive strategies and active strategies. Passive strategies deals with the building form and envelope, daylighting etc. though it has not been covered in detail but has been mentioned to the understanding purpose. In active strategies, artificial lighting and HVAC has been studied in detail. a LESSONS LEARNT: The lessons from the above mentioned information have been mentioned here. o MODEL DEVELOPMENT: The model of an existing case. has been developed from the simulation tool to check its present energy consumption. This forms the baseline against which the consumption should be reduced. Page v Design Criteria for Energy Efficient Shopping Mall 1 2012 • ENERGY EFFICIENT STRATEGIES: Certain efficient modifications are done in the models and the best one which reduces the consumption at large scale has been identified. • ANALYSIS: This stage covers the results drawn out of the simulation method. And checks the heat gain through lights and windows, consumption through HVAC and overall CO2 production. And then a comparative discussion has been made in the form of graph which clearly shows the reduction. • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: After the comparative analysis of the modified cases, conclusions are made and , on the basis of literature reviews, case studies and simulations, suggested recommendations are made to make the shopping energy efficient. PROJECT OUTCOME In malls, lighting plays a very important role in attracting the customer's .attention to sell merchandise which requires adequate thermal and visual comforts. For visual comfort, lighting should be designed properly to help create an appealing effect in the mall. In case of buildings, the usage of light varies with the place of work and the nature of space or building. This report focuses on the shopping mall where the level of illumination varies with different spaces within it.: In order to ,understand lighting; strategies, a mall, is divided into various levels namely Public areas, Food court, Exterior facades, Retail outlets and Showrooms. The excessive dependence on artificial lighting increases energy consumption. Hence, an understanding on daylighting and sensors is quintessential. Due to certain limitations like-unpredictability of the sun, illumination-levels change within the space causing color fading effect on the merchandise due to Ultra Violet (UV) rays,- daylight alone cannot fulfill illumination requirement within a mall.- Daylight harvesting, integrated- with artificial lighting and controls is used to overcome this. problem. Hence, all - sources of lights like daylight, artificial light -and a combination Hof -both have been studied and implemented. HVAC also plays a major role in consuming a substantial amount of electric load in a, shopping mall. The use of VAV system along with VFD reduces-energy consumption.. , -- This report discusses the following strategies for HVAC systems, which are best suited. to achieve these goals: - Page vi Design Criteria for Energy Efficient Shopping Mall 2012 Working principle of centralized HVAC Control loop system of sensors e Desiccant dehumidification ® Airside economizer • Thermal storage • Heat recovery chillers o Demand controlled ventilation using COz sensor It is often difficult to estimate the demand savings achieved by HVAC strategies as the building's HVAC electrical load is active and responsive to weather conditions. occupancy and other factors. In order to achieve savings, a- simulation model has been developed with two alternatives to check the following factors: a Heat gain through lights and windows o Unit energy consumption through HVAC o CO2 production The results obtained after modified simulations revealed .a significant reduction in annual energy consumption from 526.41 MWh down . to 388-.53MWh when all the• controls and energy, efficient measures were applied in second case. This has also helped in overall reduction of CO2 -and heat gain. Hence, it can . be summarized' from simulation that though initial costs of energy efficient system is high; it recovers the cost eventually with a low emission of CO2 and hence reduces electricity bills. Finally, a comparative discussion has been made graphically which clearly shows the reduction. CONCLUSION The climate of Delhi and NCR has a great variation of. temperature. in summer and winter season. It goes. up to 40°C in summer and below 5 °C in winter. Thus, a .mall should be designed according to heat loss and heat gain .-during both extreme periods so that comfort level is maintained throughout the year. In summer, the ' cooling demand rises which automatically. increases electricity consumption due to increased CO2 emission. In case of passive strategies, an alignment along East-West. direction, low U-value of external walls, high VLT value for double glass glazing are. some of the strategies to reduce energy consumption. For lighting, the usage of an efficient fixture is a good practice but along with controllers it turns out to be the Page vii Design Criteria for Energy Efficient Shopping Mall 1 2012 best practice. For HVAC, demand reduction strategies like thermal storage, VAV systems, centrifugal chillers, maintenance of proper indoor air quality, usage of sensors etc. can reduce energy consumption to a large extent. Hence, it can be concluded that in a mall, installation of energy efficient fixtures and control devices can reduce the consumption. A similar strategy can be adopted in existing malls to reduce energy consumption. Thus, the overall : consumption of energy in malls can be reduced that reduces carbon footprints. RECOMMENDATION The information in this report should be dispersed to - shopping mall owners and management team so that it reduces the electricity bill and makes people aware of the energy consumption in the mall. The inferences from the simulation and the. literature study have helped in making recommendations for an energy efficient shopping mall which have been provided at the end of the report. This information will help to provide a common understanding of . control strategies . and development procedures to enable these strategies.-.The report is not an exhaustive list of all strategies. Further research is needed to better understands off °peak demand reduction potential and capabilities::of these strategies: interms: of, its feasibility. BENEFITS OF CASE STUDIES This report is based'primarily on case studies in Delhi and NCR. It is--intended'to help in : understanding the control strategy`.` implementation process. Peak demand reduction and demand response is key part of 'any mall owner to °achieve energy efficiency. The purpose of the case study is provide,=a .snare .thorough analysis: of :: cases that -might reveal interesting information'which exists,in=practical-world.::Select -; city walk, Delhi, Shipra mall and Ghaziabad mall' have 6 been' selected =for'the case .: = study as they are significant to --this topic.'-The', reason -behind its-selection , is the "popularity of these malls :among the -people'': and hence. is. the;° leading., malls -in :' s Delhi and NCR with certain energy saving <measures ,,used in #hem:. Abad .Nucleus e .... mall at Kochi has also been studied as it's the `only 2mall in:lndia which has .a:LEED CS `" . GOLD certification from the Indian Green Building Council..;en_US
dc.subjectHVAC SYSTEMen_US
dc.typeM.Tech Dessertationen_US
Appears in Collections:MASTERS' THESES ( A&P)

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