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Authors: Sharma, Rajni
Issue Date: 1992
Abstract: The concept of 'Land Reform' involves an integrated programme of measures to eliminate obstacles in socio-economic development that arises out of the defects in the agrarian organization. Land Reforms have been accepted as a vital component in the anti-poverty thrust and for the increase of agricultural productivity. The term Land Reforms in its broader sense, includes the whole range of agrarian reform but in its restricted sense it applies only to the changes in tenancy and tenures, distribution of land ownership and regulation of land utilization. The basic objectives of land reforms consist of an equitable distribution of land, improvement in productivity, security and fair rent for tenant and better living standards to the landless agricultural labour. In ancient times, India was known as golden bird, mainly because our agriculture, cottage and small industries were highly developed. These were closely inter-related. Unfortunately owing to the advent of colonism and it's after math, this sector declined and was almost destroyed following the discrementries and opportunistic policy of the government. It is further unfortunate that after independence our efforts were piece-meal and we failed to give due priority to the development of this vital sector. This led to continuous decline in the land holding performances, 07) along with associated land problems. Thus if India wants to regain the past glory, even now, it is not too late to give due place to this sector, particularity "Land Reforms'. The steps taken up till now have not borne fruits to put the agrarian sector on take-off stage. Hence, the importance of the study of this subject was felt and taken up. After independence land reforms have been divided into four parts : (i) Abolition of zamindary system , (ii) Tenancy reform , (iii) Ceiling on land holding , (iv ) Consolidation of land holding . Zamindary system has been abolished in the most part of Uttar Pradesh. Under Tenancy Reform, the Security of Tenure to tenant has also been granted in all parts of the state. At present the problem of implementation of land ceiling still remains ineffective along with the problems in land ceiling. Under land ceiling process the surplus land has been acquired by the government, but it has not been distributed in some parts of Uttar Pradesh and even more astonishing thing is that the land which has been distributed among the beneficiaries is too small to be cultivated properly. Some of the allotted pockets of land are barren and do not have irrigation facilities. (iii) By examining the role of land ceiling in achieving economic growth in the general context of a backward economy with particular reference to Saharanpur district, the present work seeks to analyze the process of development of the complex tenurial relations. In the background of historical retrospect and the present-day socio-economic conditions of landless labourers in Saharanpur district, a comprehensive study is presented about administrative, financial and socio-economic aspects of land ceiling. This study has been made taking into consideration various view points of Land Ceiling in Uttar Pradesh with special reference to Saharanpur district. The present study extends over Saharanpur district to ascertain the impact of land ceiling on landless labourers (beneficiaries) and land owners (land-givers). The survey was conducted within a very short time frame in 1987-88. Primary data has been collected up to 1988. Up to 1988, Saharanpur district was divided into five tehsils i.e. Roorkee , Deoband, Saharanpur, Nakur and Hardwar. A separate district by the name of Hardwar was formed which included Hardwar tehsil, Roorkee tehsil and Laksher tehsil in 1988. The data had been collected upto 1988. Roorkee Tehsil came in Saharanpur district upto 1988. The primary data was collected with the help of self prepared and pre-tested comprehensive interview scheduled. For this purpose stratified Random Cum-purposely sampling procedure was adopted. The study covers the whole of Saharanpur district. The two hundred farmers (\V) were randomly selected from twenty villages. The tv'»-points viz before land ceiling and after land ceiling help in critically examining the impact of various factors on the economic and social condition of farmers and on the agricultural development. Secondary data was also collected with the help of books, journals, official records specially of revenue department. Uttar Pradesh Imposition of Land Ceiling Act was passed in 1960 by the Uttar Pradesh Legislature and came into force in 1961. Therefore, period since 1961 has been opted. The study reveals that the progress of land ceiling in Uttar Pradesh is considerably slow. A very small area of land could be collected and smaller quantity was actually distributed. Some beneficiaries are owner only on paper but land is still cultivated by big landlords. Some cases are also pending and yet not decided. Moreover most of the land is allotted to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. The poor of other castes still remain in pitiable condition. Therefore, the land should be given to deserving landless labourers also. The land which has been distributed to landless is too small to cultivate. Therefore the use of modern implements for landless labourers is not possible individually. In the survey period, it is found that they use modern implements (tractor, thrasher, pump-set, etc) on collective (V) basis. The government gives them only land not any implement. So they have to hire agricultural implement on higher cost. The survey shows that the role of financial institutions, too has not been satisfactory. Landless labourers are still under debts of landlords rather than going to the organized sector due to the complexities involved in the processing and disbursement of loans. The income and capital assets of beneficiaries has increased because they have received land from the government by the Land Ceiling Act. The income of big landlords has increased due to the use of modern techniques. The average size of land holding of landlords has been deteriorated after parting with excess land, but it is not still uneconomic size of land holding. The impact of land ceiling on land holding is not depressive, because barren and unirrigated land which was useless and not cultivated by farmers. After land ceiling, the land is being cultivated by landless labourers. The study shows that the yield is not necessarily proportionate to the size of land holdings. The ceiling is not affected by the agricultural output. Because after parting with excess land, the yield per hectare increases while size of land holding has been reduced and the yield per hectare is not too less as compared to big landlords. (v/) The analysis of the data shows, that the sugarcane cultivation is comparatively more profitable than other crops. It has also been revealed that the land ceiling has a mixed effect on the landless labourers (beneficiaries).
Other Identifiers: Ph.D
Research Supervisor/ Guide: Ali, Mansoor
metadata.dc.type: Doctoral Thesis
Appears in Collections:DOCTORAL THESES (HSS)

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