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Authors: Omprakash
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: Bhopal city became the administrative Capital of Madhya Pradesh in 1956 and it now occupies the area more than 286 sq kms. With gradual expansion of industrial development and economic activities, its population also expanded rapidly from a mere 102,000 in the year 1951 to 1.064 million in the year 1991 as per the census. There are two major lakes which in combination form Bhoj wetland in Bhopal city-Upper Lake created in the mid 11th century by constructing an earthen dam across Kolan river and Lower Lake Constructed in the late 18`x' century immediately down stream of upper lake. The upper lake has a catchment area of 361 sq kms- and water spread area of 30.7 sq kms at full tank level. The over overflow from upper lake drains through a spillway at Bhadbhda into Kaliasot Reservior on Kalisot river finally to discharge into Yamuna through Betwa The lower lake has a catchment area of 9.6 sq kms and water spread of 1.3 sq kms. The lower lake receives its inflow partly as seepage from upper lake and from a number of nallas (drains & streams) and perennially spills over a waste weir into Patra Nallas that leads to Hallali Nadi and ultimately to river Yamuna. Upper Lake is a major source of drinking water supply to Bhopal city with a share of nearly 50% of water in normal wheather year. However, the quality of water in the upper' lake has gradually deteriorated due to pollution and ecological damage caused by growing habitations and human activities in the surrounding area. Inflow of waste and sewage from catchment, excessive growth of aquatic weeds and their death and decay in the lakes, accumulation of silt and nutrients have only aggravated pollution of lakes over a long time. Lower lake that is located in the heart of city and flanked by commercial area, though not used as source of drinking water is closely associated with daily life of the citizens. Pollution of lower lake due to unchecked inflow of solid and liquid wastes from its urban catchment has become alarmingly high besides heavy siltation at nallah inlets. Recognizing the immediate and long-term consequences of environmental degradation and pollution of lake water which imposes a serious threat to the health of people, a Conservation Plan was prepared by Govt Of M.P and through Govt of India was funded by JBIC in 1995. Ui This Conservation Plan was implemented by Govt of MP between 1995 to 2004. It envisaged several components such as dredging and de-silting, catchment area treatment, Sewage treatment schemes, solid waste management and other shore-line /fringe area management activities, de-weeding, aquaculture and installation of floating fountains etc. The primary objective of was to upgrade environmental conditions of Bhoj wetland and ensure availability of water to the main city and to do overall management & conservation of Wetland. The present Study is to do performance evaluation of Bhoj wetland Conservation Plan. For this following aspects were taken into consideration • Examination of physico-chemical characteristics of Bhoj wetland waters to evaluate the impact of Conservation Plan. • Examination of Bacteriological status of Wetland waters to judge the suitability for swimming, water sports and drinking etc as per CPCB Standards. • Examination of Bio-diversity of Bhoj wetland to know if there is any loss of species due to pollution in the lakes and presence of pollution indicative species if any. • To perscribe appropriate measures for long-term sustainability of Conservation Plans to maintain water quality of lake waters. The water quality was monitored for post monsoon season of 2011 and pre-monsoon season of 2012. The experimentally obtained data was compared with pre-implementation phase and with just. after implementation phase. The conclusion was — there was improvement in water quality just after implementation (2006) but water quality has reached the pre-implementation phase in 2011, after a decade of implementation of Conservation Plan. There is general loss in biodiversity also. Hence question of sustainability came in to picture. On the basis of data available from EPCO, Bhopal and subject to general examination, other parameters of evaluation have also taken care of. Thus, over all appropriate measures for long term sustainability have been prescribed.
Other Identifiers: M.Tech
Research Supervisor/ Guide: Singhal, M. K.
metadata.dc.type: M.Tech Dessertation
Appears in Collections:MASTERS' THESES (HRED)

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