Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://localhost:8081/xmlui/handle/123456789/1897
Authors: Lwin, Zaw
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: Inle Lake, the second largest lake of Myanmar, is situated in Shan state in northeastern side of the country. Inle catchment includes watershed of Taunggyi, Nyaung Shwe, Yaksauk, Pindaya, Kalaw, and Pinlaung Township. The total estimated surface area is 116 km2 and catchment area is about 3682 km2. It is an important water body as more than 1,70,000 people inhabit the lake surroundings. The lake provides livelihood to the local people in terms of cultivating variety of crops in floating islands, fisheries, gold and silver smith, cotton weaving, black smith, trade & transportation and source of electricity. The Lake also provides habitat to a large variety of migrating waterfowls and other birds and is designated as National Sanctuary for the birds. Due to its picturesque siting and diverse fauna, unique lifestyles and traditions of human inhabitants, the lake is considered as one of the primary tourist destinations in Myanmar. Over the year, Inle lake is suffering from the environmental degradation due to increase in population resulting in increase in large numbers of human activities like :(1) the houses have been built inside the lake having poor sanitation and improper management of wastes (2) livestock breeding as a source of garbage and sewage and (3) industries, their wastes and effluents being directly or indirectly discharged into the lake and (4) shrinkage of open lake water area. Deforestation and intense agricultural practices in its catchment have further added silt and nutrients to the shallow lake. The dependence of entire population on forest for fuelwood is resulting in heavy deforestation. The fertilizers and pesticides from floating gardens and sewage from the catchment are also reaching the lake in addition to sediments and nutrient causing the lake eutrophic, a trophic'state which is indicative of the deteriorated lake health. Public awareness and participation for conservation of the lake are unsatisfactory and present status of institutional setup is not systematic. In this study, depend on collection of data there are three aspects pertaining to the lake and its catchment viz, water quality analysis and waste management were taken into consideration with cost estimation of conservation and management plan of Inle Lake. Present status of these aspects has been studied in detail and gaps and issues have been identified. The water quality of Inle Lake was assessed with pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness, Chloride, Alkalinity, Ammonia, DO, PO4-P, NO-3-N and NO-2-N from nine sampling locations in January 2012. The Trophic Stage Index (TSI) of Inle Lake was also determined by using Carlson Trophic State Index (CTSI) method and Indian Trophic State Index (ITSI) method. Water quality of Inle lake was also assessed by the drinking water standard of CPCB, WHO and American standard. The water quality has been assessed by the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSF WQI). The study indicates that there has been deterioration in the water quality of the lake with passing of time. Water quality parameters have deteriorated especially in the inhabited area. Present state of Inle lake' water is not fit for drinking purposes and there is a need of close monitoring, conservation and restoration measures. The study indicates that in-lake activities have serious impact on the trophic state of the lake compared to outside-lake activities. Status of sanitation has been found very poor around the lake and in its catchment.. There is no STP in the Lake' catchment. There is a need of scientific solid waste management around the lake and its catchment. Appropriate suggestions. have been given with their estimated costs. , In this study, various Environment Management & Conservation Plans had been discussed and their costs have been estimated. Management of sewage & solid waste and substitution of organic fertilizers & pesticides in agricultural lands, inside and around the lake area have been discussed with cost estimation. Need for public awareness and participation has been discussed, and cost also has been estimated. Present status of institutional setup has also discussed and a proposal institution committee has been suggested for environment management plan of Inle Lake and its catchment. Monitoring plan has also considered with the estimated cost for conservation and management of Inle Lake within the conservation period. The technologies suitable for environmental management of Inle lake are suggested along with its management plan including cost analysis of the technology suggested as well as the O&M cost together with expected benefits. The proposed conservation and management plan of Inle Lake is for 3 years which is in addition to the budget already allocated by the Government. The estimated cost is 31.18 million US. $ and is expected to improve the lake health significantly if the conservation plan is implemented by the government in true sense. More extensive studies are needed because the lake is through to be the most changing site in Myanmar as a result of both the natural and anthropogenic activities. By the conservation and management of Inle Lake and its catchment, water quality will improve, which will affect on domestic water supply for floating villages and eutrophication of lake will reduce. The tourist will be more blooming in this area due to iv improvement in the living standard of local people. Inle lake will become a hub of socio-economic activity and an area of tremendous ecological value in Southern Shan State. After concluding the findings of the study, a comprehensive, cost-effective and feasible conservation plan has been suggested for the overall sustainable development of the whole environment of Inle Lake.
Other Identifiers: M.Tech
Research Supervisor/ Guide: Sharma, M. P.
metadata.dc.type: M.Tech Dessertation
Appears in Collections:MASTERS' THESES (HRED)

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