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|Title:||ORGANIZATIONAL ROLE STRESS AND COPING STRATIGIES OF PUBLIC SECTOR EXECUTIVES|
|Authors:||Gupta, Naveen Kumar|
|Abstract:||Various studies have shown that stress is one of the most common!/ experienced state of discomfiture by an individual and is generally found in people working in various organizations in different capacities. But stress is not always harmful. To a certain extent anxiety, arising from stress drives us towards achieve ment of goal. It is only when it exceeds a certain level that stress debilitates us and retards our performance. The need of the hour is to examine stress from different aspects. The relationship of organizational role stress with other variables such as job satisfaction, personality factors, organizational climate, leadership, role conflict and role ambiguity, has been explored by various researchers But few have studied organizational role stress, trait anxiety and coping strategies as a function of service length. (One more variable Trait Anxiety was taken later on just to find out the relation between Organizational Role Stress and Trait Anxiety) . Service length is an important factor related to role stress, trait anxiety and cooing strategies, so the present study is to determine the role of service length on Organizational Role Stress, Trait Anxiety and Coping strategies and to find out the relation between Organizational Role Stress and Trait Anxiety amongst the executives of BHEL (Haridwar) - APublic Sector Undertaking. 200 executives, on the basi^ of their service lengths, were selected and were classified into three categories, i.e. executives with 5 or less than 5 years' service, with 5 to 10 years' service, and with more than 10 years' service. Each of the following tests was administered to each executive individually1. Organizational Role Stress (ORS) This test was developed by Udai Pareek. The following stresses were taken up in the present test - Self Role Distance, Inter Role Distance, Role Stagnation, Role Ambiguity, Role Overload, Role Isolation, Role Expectation Conflict, Role Erosion, Personal Inadequacy, Resource Inadequacy. It has 50 items. The score of each role stress may range from 0 to 20. St ate -Tr ait_Anx iety_Iny_entory_A-Tr ai t_tSTAl)_ f To measure the anxiety level, the Indian adaptation of Speilberger's (1970) State-Trait Anxiety Scale (Sharma and Singh, 1973) has been used. It is a self report measurement of state anxiety (A-State) and trait anxiety (A-Trait). The 'STAI' A-Trait scale consists of 20 statements that ask people to describe how they generally feel. Subjects respond to each items by rating themselves on the following four point scale (1) Almost never; (2) Some times; (3) Often; (4) Almost always. Ro le Picture Instrument for Coping Styles (0) This is a semi projective technique developed by Udai Pareek. This test consists of 24 pictures. Some particular problem is raised in a particular situation and the respondend is required to give a response as to how the persons to whom a statement has been made would respond. The responses are scored on the following eight dimensions', Impunitive, Intrapunitive, Extrapunitive, Defensiveness, Impersistive, Impersistive, Intrapersistive, Extrapersistive, Interpersistive. Out of these eight dimensions first four dimensions show avoidance oriented behaviour and they are considered as dysfunctional styles of coping with stress situations. Last four dimensions are approach oriented and are regarded as functional. Data, thus obtained, were subjected to various statistical tests, beginning with Mean to Standard Deviation, 't' test and correlation. Findings of the study indicate that: 1. There is a linear increase in the extent of organizational role stress as a function of service lengths. 2. Executives with more service lengths (5-10 years' group and 10 or more than 10 years' group have larger trait anxiety scores than the group having service length upto 5 years. The former two groups do not differ from each other significantly. 3. Executives with service length of 10 or more than 10 years have more inter role distance scores than the other two groups having service length upto 5 years, and 5 to 10 years. Later two groups do not differ significantly. 4. The role stagnation was found to be maximum in the group of executives with the service length of 5 to 10 years and this group had larger role stagnation scores than the group with service length upto 5 years. No other means differences in role stagnation scores for various service length were significant. 5. Role expectation conflict was found to be maximum in the group of executives with 10 or more than 10 years services. This group had significantly more role expectation conflict score than the remaining two groups having service length upto 5 years' and 5 to 10 years. Later two groups did not differ significantly from each other. 6. Role erosion was found to be maximum in the group of executives with 5 to 10 years services. The executives upto 5 years service length experience less role erosion but no significant difference was found. Executives with 10 or more than 10 years services experience significantly less role erosion in comparison of other two groups having service length upto 5 years and 5 to 10 years. 7. There is a linear increase in the extent of role overload as a function of service lengths. 8. Role isolation increases as the service length increases but later group of the executives with the service length of 10 or more than 10 years does not differ significantly. 9. Executives with service length of 10 or more than 10 years have more personal inadequacy scores than the other two groups having service length upto 5 years and 5 to 10 years. The group of executives having service length of 5 to 10 years differ signi ficantly from other two groups. 10. Executives with service length upto 5 years experience more self role distance than the other two groups. Executives having service length of 5 to 10 years have minimum scores but no significant difference was find out. 11. Role ambiguity increases as the service length increases but no significant difference was observed amongst the groups of executives. 12. Executives with 10 or more than 10 years service length have significantly more role inadequacy scores than the other two groups having service length upto 5 years and 5 to 10 years. Later two groups do not differ significantly. 13. Organizational role stress and trait anxiety were found unrelated to each other (r = .09; P , n.s.). 14. Avoidance style is used by most of the executives (69 -A) to cope with the stress.|
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