Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/14081
Title: FLEXIBILITY AND QUALITY OF WORK LIFE AS PREDICTORS OF WORK-FAMILY ENRICHMENT
Authors: Rastogi, Mansi
Keywords: Work and family
interaction between work
Highlighting the need for research around
Though a number of antecedents
Issue Date: May-2016
Publisher: MANAGEMENT STUDIES IIT ROORKEE
Abstract: Work and family are two integral realms of life. The interaction between work and family domains can be categorised into two parts, negative (work-family conflict) and positive (work-family enrichment. Giving emphasis on positive work-family interactions, the study begins with establishing the significance of work-family enrichment construct; where, the researcher pointed towards the under responded question of ―how to promote and effectively develop work-family enrichment‖. With work-family enrichment figuring amongst the top most concerns facing the organisations (McNall and Masuda, 2011), experts are moving towards academic researchers for empirically examined solutions for developing and promoting work-family enrichment in organisations (Crain and Hammer, 2013). However, existing gap with respect to information around antecedents of enrichment is causing major barrier towards the way to smooth evolution of research and practice, targeted at enhancing work-family enrichment among workforce in organisations, as reflected in the contemporary statements by distinguished scholars in the field as explained below. Highlighting the need for research around the predictors of work-family enrichment, Frone (2003) held that work-family literature is dominated by conflict focused studies and little is known about positive work-family interplay i.e. work-family enrichment. According to the review study of Crain and Hammer (2013), there is scarcity of systemised empirical studies around the predictors of work-family enrichment and very little is known about the way work-family enrichment can be influenced by organisational factors. Further, Carlson and Hunter (2014) listed examining the predictors of work-family enrichment as a crucial future research agenda, which could provide scholars with the tools to foster enriched employees. Though a number of antecedents to work-family enrichment have been proposed, only a few of them have been empirically examined (Crain and Hammer, 2013; McNall et al., 2009). Additionally, most of the literature around the predictors of work-family enrichment has come from developed nations particularly from the West such as USA, Canada and Netherlands etc., whereas Asian work-family enrichment studies have continued to be dominated by China with little scientifically proven about its predictors in other culturally different settings, like India. Since the culture of a nation tends to have a dominant impact over employee perceptions regarding work experience and consequently on work-family related issues (Agrawal and Sadhana, 2010; Powell et al., 2009), the drivers of work-family enrichment recognised in Western settings may differ considerably in Indian context, due to its unique socio-cultural iv legacy (Agrawal and Tyagi, 2009). One custom being appreciated in a particular culture may not be welcomed in another culture. In this direction, it can be stated that one size doesn‘t fit all when it comes to values associated with work and family relations (Powell et al., 2009). Hence, it becomes essential to determine what drives work-family enrichment in India, considering the remarkable growth of Indian economy. Thus, we have ample motivation to extend work-family enrichment research to one of the fastest developing economy of India, which still remains under-represented in the present literature. The present study of this thesis work has attempted to examine the role of flexibility and quality of work life as predictors of work-family enrichment among middle level employees from select business organisations in India. More specifically, the study analyses flexibility, quality of work life and work-family enrichment in select business organisations sector, i.e., public and private along with select industry, i.e., manufacturing and service. Apart from this, the study intends to examine the influence of marital status on employee‘s perceptions regarding flexibility, quality of work life and work-family enrichment. Further, the study attempts to unfold the mechanisms underlying the relationships among study variables by proposing and empirically testing mediation and moderation hypotheses based on appropriate theoretical framework. The target population for the present research study consisted of middle level employees from manufacturing and service select public and private sector industries. In order to collect the data, total 559 Indian middle level employees were contacted irrespective of their gender and marital status. Out of 559, only 405 employees participated in the survey yielding 80% response rate. But due to incomplete and irrelevant information in the form of missing and multiple responses, only 380 questionnaires were used in the final analyses. With the adoption of mixed mode approach, the data were collected personally by researcher using paper and pen method as well as via online mode. Data collection from public as well as private firms functioning in service and manufacturing sector has confirmed heterogeneous nature of the sample. In order to examine the hypothesized relationships, a series of statistical tests was conducted. The data analyses section has included normality tests to check the normal distribution of the sample and common method bias test using Harman‘s single factor analysis. With the examination of variance inflation factor value, the multicollinearity has also been verified among the received samples followed by examination of psychometric properties of all v the instruments used for measuring the variables under study. The validation of the instruments was followed by the information regarding descriptive statistics included values like mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficients and standard error values. After this, the hypothesized relationships were tested with the help of t-test, multiple hierarchical regression analysis, moderated multiple regression analysis and Path analysis by using SPSS (PROCESS). In answer to the direct need for empirical investigation around predictors of work-family enrichment, the present study can be said to have developed new knowledge in the field by proposing and studying new mechanisms of relationships among flexibility, quality of work life and work-family enrichment. By studying mediation and moderation relationships among formerly unexamined and distinctive combination of variables, the present study makes an effort to bridge the gap in academic literature, where there is substantial dearth of literature in work-family enrichment. Additionally, this study goes a step ahead in investigating the mechanisms underlying the relationships among quality of work life, flexibility and work-family enrichment by proposing and examining mediation and moderation hypotheses. Building on the theoretical framework of work-family enrichment model (Greenhaus and Powell, 2006), developed on Sieber‘s (1974) theory of role accumulation and Marks‘s (1977) expansionist approach; Herzberg‘s two factor theory (Vincent et al., 1960) and social role theory (Eagly, 2013), the study has enriched understanding of the concept and process of work-family enrichment in new unique ways and has further reinforced theory construction around work-family enrichment. The present study can be projected to have provided further support for work-family enrichment model by investigating the role of organisational resources and personal resources in work enrichment process. This is relatively more refined and advanced model as compared to other positive work-family interplay constructs in the domain of positive work-family interactions. In addition to its established validity in developed nations, the study increases the validity of the work-family enrichment model and process by validating the model in the unique cultural settings of India. The empirically tested and scientifically obtained results will help the limited work-family enrichment literature to grow further. More importantly, this study can be said to obtain extended work-family enrichment literature in significant ways. Furthermore, the study has imparted knowledge on the way to robust theory building around each of the variables under study being tested in a unique background. To conclude, it was observed that workplace flexibility and quality of work life both significantly predicted work-family enrichment. Further, the results have indicated that gender vi does not moderate the relationship between flexibility dimensions and work-family enrichment. Quality of work life is reported to have partially mediated relationship between flexibility dimensions and work-family enrichment. The discussion provided in this study rationalises the findings with the background of existing literature. The final part of the study provides value to the existing work-family research by offering conclusion, implications, limitations and scope for future studies. Along with a pragmatic theoretical contribution, the research also provides business executives, managers and employers with greater intricacies into what really influences and promotes work-family enrichment within the organisation. This way, employees and employers both can be said to get benefitted in planning effective strategies and initiatives to promote work-family enrichments. The findings of the study confer that support from organisation in the form of flexibility at workplace, has the potential to influence the life of employees at workplace and home. Thus, flexibility has a positive impact on quality of work life and work-family enrichment among employees. Designing the interventions focused to enhance the work-family enrichment level of employees, the study provides direction by proposing the action plan to proceed with. The enrichment can be reached to employees by strengthening personal resources such as quality of work life by promoting organisational support measures in the form of flexibility at workplace. Additionally, the findings of the study could also be of use for an effective knowledge pool creation for strategising work-family enrichment initiatives in anti-social work culture sectors like nursing and hospitality sectors.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/14081
Appears in Collections:DOCTORAL THESES (Management)

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